1. See Anna Vanzan, “The lgbtq Question in Ira nian Cinema: A Proxy Dis-
course?” Deportate, Esuli, Profughe 25 (2014): 45–55; Shima Houshyar, “Queer
and Trans Subjects in Ira nian Cinema: Between Repre sentation, Agency, and
Orientalist Fantasies.” Ajam Media Collective, May 11, 2013, http:// ajammc
. com / 2013 / 05 / 11 / queer - and - trans - subjects - in - iranian - cinema - between
- representation - agency - and - orientalist - fantasies.
2. The pro cess of subtitling introduces layers of intertextuality that can be additive
as much as distortive and form a constitutive part of the experience of world
cinema and its claims for universality. In chapter 1, we address the cinematic
spaces created through subtitling more directly. See Abé Mark Nornes, Cinema
Babel: Translating Global Cinema (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press,
2007); Atom Egoyan and Ian Balfour, eds., Subtitles: On the Foreignness of Film
(Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 2004).
3. The ﬁlm’s harshest critics have pointed to the American accents with which the
lead actors speak Farsi. Again, the ﬁlm’s transnational and de- territorialized
production seeps into the text as a politics of authenticity asking who may
speak as Ira nian.
4. See Emily Apter, Against World Lit er a ture: On the Politics of Untranslatabil-
ity (London: Verso, 2013); Pascale Casanova, The World Republic of Letters,
trans. M. B. DeBevoise. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007; Pheng
Cheah and Bruce Robbins, eds., Cosmopolitics: Thinking and Feeling beyond the