1 I use the term discourse, following Foucault’s notion of discursive apparatuses
and technologies to refuse the distinction between ideas and practices or texts
and lived experience; I instead approach them as co-productive (see Foucault
2 The phrase ‘‘achieving parenthood’’ is borrowed from Ellen Lewin’s (1993) and
Faye Ginsburg’s (1989) accounts of motherhood as an achievement. I use it
here to signal the active and intentional aspects of getting to pregnant, that
segment of the reproductive trajectory most distinctive for lesbians.
3 The mutual constitutiveness of sciences and sex-genders-sexualities is a key fem-
inist concern (e.g., Haraway 1997) as these categories are shown to be overlap-
ping (see, for example, Fishman, Wick, and Koenig 1999; Grosz 1994; Moore
and Clarke 1995).
4 The sociology of knowledge is important throughout this book. I use the term
knowledge in its plural to argue that many di√erent knowledges exist and that
they are produced by all kinds of people, under heterogeneous circumstances,
and in a stunningly wide variety of situations (e.g., Mannheim 1946; Wright
and Treacher 1982). Certain knowledges and their advocates have considerably
more cultural and social power than others, and this varies across time and
location, making the temporal and spatial distributions of knowledges two
fundamental concerns in analyzing their stratiﬁcation (Haraway 1991).
5 For recent elaborations of biopower, see especially Rose and Novas 2003 and
Petryna 2002; on ‘‘psycho-power,’’ see Orr 2006.
6 I engage here with a complicated and ongoing debate regarding the agency-
structure dilemma: the degree to which gender (and gender inequality) is ﬁxed
within the body, culture, and society versus the degree to which such relations
can be subverted through intentionality or free will. For an analysis of this
tension, see Pitts 2005, which argues for a feminist perspective that shifts the
focus from intentionality to technology.
7 The concept of co-constitutiveness is widely used in the ﬁeld of science and
technology studies to illustrate the ways scientiﬁc knowledge and culture, or
social life, are produced simultaneously (see Shapin and Scha√er 1986). One
doesn’t exist without the other, and they in fact rely on each other for meaning
(see Haraway 1985).