INDEX
Aberdeen (Washington), 100
Abernethy, Charles L., 159
Absence control, 72–73, 98, 151–52, 157,
222, 243, 259–60, 287n. 70, 333n. 69
Accents. See Telephone operators: language
used by
A≈rmative action programs (of Bell Sys-
tem), 226–29, 237–48, 256, 257, 336n.
115
afl. See American Federation of Labor
African American men, 210, 211, 247,
284n. 31, 321n. 21
African American women: Bell System’s
public relations about hiring of, 227–34;
blaming of, for poor telephone service,
223–25; as clerical workers, for Bell Sys-
tem, xi, 198, 199, 209, 213; as crafts
workers, 239–42, 244, 256, 259; de-
meaning depictions of, by white opera-
tors, 134, 135, 206; as domestics, 88,
291n. 114; dominance of, as telephone
operators, 211–12, 220–36, 250, 329n.
6; entry of, into Bell System, 7, 195–
226; exclusion of, from telephone in-
dustry, 2, 3, 53, 55, 87, 126, 139, 195–201,
320n. 16; fight of, against discrimina-
tion, 201–4; as ‘‘hardcore,’’ 220, 224,
229–33, 235, 236, 329n. 6; labor unions’
discrimination against, 195, 206–9,
228, 245–46, 324nn. 62, 66, and 71;
particular image of, sought by Bell Sys-
tem, 234–35; as supervisors, 198, 235.
See also Caribbean women
Age: as Bell System hiring criterion, 65–
66, 72, 81, 154, 258; of telephone opera-
tors in the 1920s, 156; and union activity,
94, 313n. 75
Alliance of Independent Telephone
Unions, 315n. 99
American Bell Telephone Company (abt),
13, 14, 93, 118
American Civil Liberties Union (aclu), 233
American Communications Association
(aca), 183, 314n. 80, 315n. 99
American Federation of Labor (afl), 102,
104, 111, 173, 178, 179, 296n. 87, 314n.
80
American Telephone and Telegraph Com-
pany (at&t): as long distance provider,
13, 14; as monopoly, 14; opening of male-
dominated work to women by, ix–x; as
parent Bell System company, 276n. 93.
See also at&t Long Lines; Bell System
Anderson, Bernard E., 211
Anderson, E. J., 134–35
Area codes, 130
Arkansas, 211, 295n. 54, 305n. 22, 320n. 16
Atlanta (Georgia), 101, 102, 245–46, 320n.
16
at&t Long Lines (Bell System Long Lines),
38, 131, 139, 142, 149–50, 199, 210,
276n. 93, 336n. 115. See also American
Telephone and Telegraph Company; Bell
System; Long distance
Automatic call distribution, 128–29
Automatic Electric Company, 120, 123,
299n. 11
Automatic Message Accounting (ama), 132,
133
Automatic Number Identification (ani),
133
Automatic Telephone and Electric Com-
pany of Illinois, 120
Automation (of switchboards): Bell Sys-
tem’s public relations about, 125, 159,
166–69; as deterrent to unionism, 115–
16, 183; development of, 116–29; early
features of, 86; e√ects of, on workers, 5,
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