In researching and writing this book I have become indebted to
people. Kátia M. de Queirós Mattoso first told me about the Bahian
tors when she was a visiting professor at Columbia University many
ago. In Salvador, Maria José Rabello de Freitas, then Director o
Memorial da Medicina, and historian Consuelo Pondé de Sena were
ticularly helpful in locating sources and directing me to various archiv
the city. I also used sources from the collections at the National Li
of Medicine at Bethesda, the Health Sciences Library at Columbia
National Academy of Medicine, New York, and the Paul and Lydia
manovitz Library at the University of California at San Francisco. I w
like to thank the librarians at all these institutions for their invaluable
My research was funded in part by a fellowship from the Ame
Council of Learned Societies in , a Travel to Collections grant a
summer stipend from the National Endowment for the Humanities in
and , a San Francisco State University Affirmative Action Awa
, and a Sabbatical Grant in . I am deeply grateful to all thes
stitutions. Parts of chapters , , and appeared as ‘‘Tropical Medici
Nineteenth-Century Brazil: The Case of the ‘Escola Tropicalista Bah
–,’’ in WarmClimates and Western Medicine: The Emergen
Tropical Medicine, –, ed. David Arnold (Amsterdam: Rodopi,
–; and ‘‘Tropical Disorders and the Forging of a Brazilian Me
Identity, –,’’ Hispanic American Historical Review  ():
I would especially like to thank Nancy Leys Stepan, who always
vided intellectual support and strong encouragement; Herbert Klein,
kept on prodding me to get the project finished; Marcos Cueto, who
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