aldeia: an indigenous reserve or community; a village
artesenato: handicrafts (forexample, bows, arrows, necklaces, rings, combs, rattles,
and so on); the production and selling of these arts and crafts is one of the main
sources of income for Indians in eastern Brazil
bichodamata: animal orcreature of the forest; Indians are often imagined as such in
in North America; for Indians, white oftentimes means ‘‘non-Indian’’
(a ‘‘detribalized’’ Indian); a person of indigenous and European and/or African
descent (a ‘‘mixed blood’’); a backwoodsperson or ‘‘hick’’ (caipira)
cachaça: a Brazilian rum
speech in eastern Brazil
cacique: the leader of an indigenous community
Canoeiros: descendants of the Maxakali, who worked as canoers or boaters for the
militaryoutposts (quarteis) in the JequitínhonhaValley in the nineteenth century
chefe: a boss or director; Indians usually used it to refer to the director of funai on
any given aldeia
Crentes: Protestants, typically evangelicals
empregada: a maid, domestic servant
favela: a low-income, predominantly nonwhite neighborhood; typically, the resi-
fazenda: plantation, farm, or ranch
fazendeiro: ownerofaplantation,ranch,orfarm;usuallyconsideredtobelargeland-
holders, but not necessarily
índiosmesmos: ‘‘real’’ or ‘‘authentic’’ Indians
jagunço: hired assassins; in rural areas, theyare usuallycontracted by fazendeiros to
buttress their authority
lavrador: an agricultural worker; typically landless or owning a very small plot of
land; usually a tenant farmer, sharecropper, or peon
leis: literallyitmeanslaws;colloquiallyusedtorefertoapatternedwayof beingand
mameluco: an individual of Indian and European parentage; rarely used colloquially
mestizo: an individual of parentage from at least two of the ‘‘primary races,’’ de-
fined as Indian, black, and white; includes caboclos, morenos, mulattos, cafu-
sos, mamelucos, and so on; the official categorization of mestizo is pardo
moreno: a polite term used to refer to blacks, mulattos, and Indians; nonwhites in
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