Index
aafe v. Koch, 125. See also Asian Americans
for Equality
Acuña, Rodolfo, 12
Addams, Jane, 26
Afghanistan, 14
African Americans, 1–5, 8, 10–11, 19n.31,
48, 99, 113, 114n.4, 121, 122, 130, 138,
156, 158, 177, 186; and Korean Ameri-
cans, 159–169; and racialization; 4–5,
10–11, 79; and redistricting, 124, 126–
129; and slavery, 2–5, 10; tensions with
Cuban Americans, 180, 199n.9; in
Tocqueville, 3–4. See also Blackness
Africans, 1, 4, 18n.7, 158–59
Agassiz, Louis, 68
Aldrich, Thomas B., 25
Alhambra, California, 130
Alianza Hispano-Americano, 112
Alien Land Acts (California; 1913, 1920),
42, 45, 51, 53, 59n.6, 98
‘‘All-Asia Barred Zone,’’ 14
Almaguer, Tomás, 45
‘‘America,’’ idea of, 156, 160, 172, 185. See
also ‘‘American’’-ness
‘‘American Century,’’ 6
American Civil Liberties Union (aclu),
112. See also Southern California Ameri-
can Civil Liberties Union
American exceptionalism, 2, 11, 177, 188
American Indians. See Native Americans
American Jewish Committee, 128
American Jewish Congress, 106, 112
American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 66,
72
Americanization, 189, 196; globalization as,
172–73, 175, 176, 185; and Japanese, 40–
42, 95, 98; and Mexicans, 46, 56, 96
‘‘American’’-ness, 2–3, 5, 11, 16–17, 159,
162, 164, 168, 175, 185, 187; and mas-
culinity, 147–54, 161, 164, 165–67, 168;
minority claims to, 17, 155–57, 164, 168;
as U.S. national identity, 2–3, 5, 11, 17;
and whiteness, 16–17, 159, 163; and
white supremacy, 2–3
Anglo Americans, 177, 186; tensions with
Cuban Americans, 199n.9
Anglo-Saxon, as racial category, 6
Anthropology, 8, 62–74
Anthropometry, 63–65, 70–75, 86
Anti-Defamation League, 179
Arab, as racial category, 16
Arab Americans, 198n.7
Arabs, 19n.33
Arboleya, Jesús, 181, 199n.10
Asian, as racial category, 12–15. See also
Asiatic, as racial category; Mongoloid, as
racial category; Orientals, as racial cate-
gory
Asian American Legal Defense and Educa-
tion Fund (aaldef), 121
Asian Americans, 41, 73, 95, 121, 136, 156,
172, 179; and emasculation, 155–67; and
idealized self-image, 192; as irredeemably
‘‘foreign,’’ 12–13, 198n.7; and male sub-
jectivity, 148, 165–66; as ‘‘model minor-
ity,’’ 177, 189, 194, 195; and national
security, 195; political invisibility of, 178;
and racial alliances, 180; and redistricting,
120, 122–33, 137, 139; and Wen Ho Lee
case, 195. See also Asians; Chinese Amer-
icans; Japanese Americans; Korean
Americans
Asian Americans for Equality (aafe), 122–
25, 132, 135
Asian American studies, 178
Asian American Union for Political Action,
125
Asian Pacific American Legal Center
(apalc), 128
Asian Pacific Americans in Higher Educa-
tion, 194
Asians, 1, 7–10, 16, 78, 93, 158; as Ameri-
can Indians, 8; and immigration, 13–14;
as irredeemable aliens, 12–13, 41,
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