Deportation Scenes
Radical Sensations begins with three portraits of radicals con-
nected to the great world movements of the 1880s through the
1920s—Lucy Parsons, Ricardo Flores Magón, and Ben Fletcher—
that illustrate relationships between and among movements that
have often been viewed in isolation from each other. These por-
traits by Carlos Cortez remember, in both form and content, a
long, entangled history of radical transnational movements, state
violence, and struggles over sentimentalism and sensationalism.
While the Cortez linocuts in the introduction look backward to
the wood engravings of the Haymarket era to make connections
among moments and movements, however, I want to end by fore-
grounding three photographs—one of Emma Goldman, another
of Enrique Flores Magón and his family, and a final one of Marcus
Garvey—that document the deportations of the First World War
era and the 1920s. In the wake of the First World War and the
Mexican and Russian Revolutions, deportation became a key
weapon for state officials, who used it to clamp down on immi-
grant radicals and who thereby transformed radical movements
in the United States, pushing them further toward the cultural
nationalisms and ethnic Americanisms of the Popular Front era.
Even though the ethnic Americanisms of the 1930s were, as
Michael Denning suggests, “a complex and contradictory amalga-
mation” of different tendencies, notably including “popular inter-
nationalism,” such a “pan- ethnic internationalism was always
an unstable combination, challenged by official Americanisms,
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