1. On adaptation as part of a comparative method, see Gillman, “Otra vez Cali-
ban / Encore Caliban.” Gillman suggests that “comparability entails a theory of
space (meaning geography and place) and time (meaning temporality and his-
tory) that would recognize the ‘palimpsestuous’ quality of the present, where
multiple times exist simultaneously within and across the same places, or co-
exist as uneven temporalities” (193). See also Seigel, “Beyond Compare.”
2. Throughout, in theorizing cultural memory I draw on Marita Sturken’s Tangled
Memories. Sturken distinguishes cultural memory from both “personal mem-
ory” and the “history” that is “valorized by institutional frameworks or pub-
lishing enterprises” (4). She defines it as “a field of contested meanings in which
Americans interact with cultural elements to produce concepts of the nation,
particularly in events of trauma, where both the structures and the fractures of
a culture are exposed” (2–3). She persuasively analyzes how memory is often
produced by and through images and how it always involves both remembering
and forgetting. While Sturken focuses on contested meanings around the na-
tion, I examine alternative archives and subjugated knowledges that emerge in
relation to transnational movements, international conflicts, and global visions
from the 1880s through the 1920s. See also Yoneyama, Hiroshima Traces.
3. Fletcher was, however, far from being the only black radical to be prosecuted
during this era. See Kornweibel, “Investigate Everything.”
4. Trautmann, Proceedings of the First Convention of the Industrial Workers of the
World, 170.
5. Eugene Nelson, “Introduction,” 5.
6. Avrich, Anarchist Portraits, 211. This letter, which was written on November 20,
1920, continues: “Fortunately, the number of the advocates of ‘Art for Art’s sake’
is negligible, and there is no danger of Art ever foundering in its turbid waters.
Life in its myriad manifestations is against that absurd school, and so long as
man continues to be a being built up of blood, and sinews, with a heart, and
brains, Art shall exist, the genuine Art which you conceive, my good comrade,
‘with meaning and depth, true and beautiful.’” See Archivo Electrónico Ricardo
Flores Magón, http://www.archivomagó This letter can be found by fol-
lowing the links to “Obras Completas” and “Correspondencia (1899–1922).”
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