1. Several reviewers and literary critics remarked on the presence of Beloved.
Reviewing the novel for the New York Review of Books, Thomas Edwards stated
thrillswe’reenjoying.Ifyoubelievein Beloved atallyoumustaccepttheghostin
the same way you accept the other, solidly realistic figures in the story’’ (5 No-
vember 1987, 18). On the other hand, Paul Gray of Time concluded that ‘‘The
In the end, theimplausibilities in Beloved may matter less thanthe fact that Sethe
believes them’’ (21 September 1987, 75). And commenting for the Nation, Ro-
sellenBrownobservedthat‘‘Wefeelabout thisvulnerablegirl[Beloved],atleast
atfirst,aswemightaboutabenignextraterrestrial’’(17October 1987, 418).Critics
also made much of Beloved’s ‘‘ghostly’’ presence. See Bernard Bell, ‘‘Beloved:A
Womanist Neo-Slave Narrative; or Multivocal Rememberances of Things Past,’’
African American Review 26, no. 1 (spring 1992): 7–15; Emily Miller Budick, ‘‘Ab-
sence, Loss and the Space of History in Toni Morrison’s Beloved,’’ Arizona Quar-
terly 48, no. 2 (summer 1992): 117–138; Stephanie A. Demetrakopoulos, ‘‘Mater-
nal Bonds as Devourers of Women’s Individuation in Toni Morrison’s Beloved,’’
African American Review 26, no. 1 (winter 1992): 51–60; Gayle Greene, ‘‘Feminist
FictionandtheUsesofMemory,’’ Signs 16,no. 2 (winter 1991): 290–321;Deborah
Horvitz,‘‘NamelessGhosts: PossessionandDispossessionin Beloved,’’ Studies in
American Fiction 17,no. 2 (fall 1989): 157–167;SallyKeenan,‘‘FourHundredYears
of Silence: Myth, History and Motherhood in Toni Morrison’s Beloved, in Re-
casting the World: Writing after Colonialism, ed. Jonathan White (Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 1993), 45–81; Linda Krumholz, ‘‘The Ghosts of Slav-
ery:Historical Recoveryin ToniMorrison’s Beloved,’’ African American Review 26,
no. 3 (fall 1992): 395–408; David Lawrence, ‘‘Fleshly Ghosts and Ghostly Flesh:
TheWordandtheBodyin Beloved,’’ Studiesin AmericanFiction 19,no. 2 (fall 1991):
189–201; Andrew Levy, ‘‘Telling Beloved,’’ Texas Studies in Literature and Language
33, no. 1 (spring 1991): 114–123; Lorraine Liscio, ‘‘Beloved’s Narrative: Writing in
Mother’s Milk,’’ Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature 11, no. 1 (spring 1992): 31–46;
PhilipPage,‘‘CircularityinToniMorrison’s Beloved,’’ African American Review 26,
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