Notes
Introduction:RaisingtheDead
1. Several reviewers and literary critics remarked on the presence of Beloved.
Reviewing the novel for the New York Review of Books, Thomas Edwards stated
that‘‘Morrisonprovidesusnocozycornerfromwhichtosmileskepticallyatthe
thrillswe’reenjoying.Ifyoubelievein Beloved atallyoumustaccepttheghostin
the same way you accept the other, solidly realistic figures in the story’’ (5 No-
vember 1987, 18). On the other hand, Paul Gray of Time concluded that ‘‘The
flesh-and-bloodpresenceofBelovedroilsthenovel’sintense,realisticsurface....
In the end, theimplausibilities in Beloved may matter less thanthe fact that Sethe
believes them’’ (21 September 1987, 75). And commenting for the Nation, Ro-
sellenBrownobservedthat‘‘Wefeelabout thisvulnerablegirl[Beloved],atleast
atfirst,aswemightaboutabenignextraterrestrial’’(17October 1987, 418).Critics
also made much of Beloved’s ‘‘ghostly’’ presence. See Bernard Bell, ‘‘Beloved:A
Womanist Neo-Slave Narrative; or Multivocal Rememberances of Things Past,’’
African American Review 26, no. 1 (spring 1992): 7–15; Emily Miller Budick, ‘‘Ab-
sence, Loss and the Space of History in Toni Morrison’s Beloved,’’ Arizona Quar-
terly 48, no. 2 (summer 1992): 117–138; Stephanie A. Demetrakopoulos, ‘‘Mater-
nal Bonds as Devourers of Women’s Individuation in Toni Morrison’s Beloved,’’
African American Review 26, no. 1 (winter 1992): 51–60; Gayle Greene, ‘‘Feminist
FictionandtheUsesofMemory,’’ Signs 16,no. 2 (winter 1991): 290–321;Deborah
Horvitz,‘‘NamelessGhosts: PossessionandDispossessionin Beloved,’’ Studies in
American Fiction 17,no. 2 (fall 1989): 157–167;SallyKeenan,‘‘FourHundredYears
of Silence: Myth, History and Motherhood in Toni Morrison’s Beloved, in Re-
casting the World: Writing after Colonialism, ed. Jonathan White (Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 1993), 45–81; Linda Krumholz, ‘‘The Ghosts of Slav-
ery:Historical Recoveryin ToniMorrison’s Beloved,’’ African American Review 26,
no. 3 (fall 1992): 395–408; David Lawrence, ‘‘Fleshly Ghosts and Ghostly Flesh:
TheWordandtheBodyin Beloved,’’ Studiesin AmericanFiction 19,no. 2 (fall 1991):
189–201; Andrew Levy, ‘‘Telling Beloved,’’ Texas Studies in Literature and Language
33, no. 1 (spring 1991): 114–123; Lorraine Liscio, ‘‘Beloved’s Narrative: Writing in
Mother’s Milk,’’ Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature 11, no. 1 (spring 1992): 31–46;
PhilipPage,‘‘CircularityinToniMorrison’s Beloved,’’ African American Review 26,
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