Roland Barthes,
Systeme de la Mode,
p. 18; see chap. 1 below.
Roy B. Helfgott, "Women's and Children's Apparel," in
Made in New York:
Case Studies in Metropolitan Manufacturing,
ed. Max Hall, pp. 19-134; Edgar
Hoover and Raymond Vernon,
Anatomy of a Metropolis;
Paul Nystrom,
Economics of Fashion;
Larry Smith and Company,
Garment District Study,
2 vols.; Emanuel Tobier, "Manhattan's Business District in the Industrial Age,"
Power, Culture and Place: Essays on New York City,
ed. John H. Mollenkopf,
pp. 87-88; Roger D. Waldinger,
Through the Eye of the Needle: Immigrants
and Enterprise in New Yorks Garment Trades.
Edouard Debect,
L'habillementfeminin en France au point de vue industriel
et commercial,
p. 113.
Richard B. Stott,
Workers in the Metropolis: Class, Ethnicity, and Youth in
Antebellum New York City,
p. 37; Georges Duveau, La
vie ouvriere en France
sous Ie Second empire
(Paris: Gallimard, 1946), p. 211; Joan Wallach Scott,
"Men and Women in the Parisian Gannent Trades: Discussions of Family and
Work in the 1830s and 1840s," in
The Power of the Past: Essays for Eric
ed. Pat Thane, Geoffrey Crossick, and Roderick Floud, p. 69.
Occupations at the 12th Census (1900), Special Reports,
pp. 636, 638, 640;
14th Census ofthe United States,
vol. 4,
Population 1920, Occupations,
p. 192.
Dressmakers and seamstresses (not in factory) fell from 38,850 workers in
1910, to 22,915 in 1920, to 11,633 in 1940. There were only 4,522 left in the
whole New York metropolitan area in 1980.
13th Census ofthe United States,
vol. 4,
Population 1910, Occupation Statistics,
p. 574;
14th Census (1920),
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