1. See, in par ticular, my discussion of heritage breeds in chapter 4.
2. A number of recent popu lar cookbooks and food writers extoll the virtues
of “real food” (Planck 2007). See also Mark Bittman’s “ simple message,” “Eat
Real Food” (2014).
1. I discuss this point more fully in chapter 5.
2. As I show below, it is a term that multiple actors engaged in the world of
promoting pasture- raised pigs use to describe these animals, as well as their
3. The tendency to categorize industrial agricultural products as commodity
crops, for example, tends to neglect the fact that alternative, niche, or arti-
sanal products are, of course, also commodities. This characterization can
distort both po litical economic and sociocultural analyses. It should be clear
that many anthropologists, historians, and others that I cite here have been
attentive to these po litical economic concerns.
4. See, for example, his assertion of a distinction between “outside” and “inside”
meanings (Mintz 1985, 167).
5. To use his word, they form a “habitus.”
6. In my view, it is certainly Bourdieu’s tendency to focus on sociality and the
instrumentality of material forms—as in his problematic assessment of the
gift as self- interest deferred— that leads many to see his work as ahistorical