index
Italic numbers represent pages with
illustrations
Acosta, Randy, 197n23
Acosta, Raúl, 148
aesthetics, musical: American Idol–style,
50; ‘‘bling-bling’’ (blin-blineo), 56;
Calle 13’s, 269, 273; changes in, 11;
crooner-and-rapper, 50; dance beat vs.
lyrics and, 283; dub, 6; Glory’s, 250; of
hip-hop and reggae, 58; history of reg-
gaeton’s, 19; ‘‘monotony’’ and, 306, 320;
party-dance, 293n7; Playero’s and dj
Negro’s, 40; ‘‘quality’’ and, 174; reg-
gaeton’s shift in, 49–50, 60–61; reg-
gaeton’s ‘‘street,’’ 144, 178; Renato’s, 94;
romantic-ballad, 95; Romero Joseph’s,
316; ‘‘street’’ sounds and, 42; of under-
ground, 45, 113, 124
aesthetics, performative (visual): Afro-
centric headgear, 33; ‘‘baggy,’’ 147, 161;
‘‘bling-bling’’ (blin-blineo), 50, 56, 215,
218–19, 256; Calle 13’s, 260–61, 273;
conspicuous consumption and, 215,
218–20; dreadlocks, 82–83, 83, 88n1,
102–3, 106; Filiberto Ojeda Uptowns—
Machetero Air Force Ones and, 220;
gra≈ti, 40, 41, 262, 297–98, 318; high
fashion and street wear, 215; of hip-hop
and reggae, 58; Ivy Queen and, 240, 249;
‘‘lo blanquito fashion,’’ 319, 323n10; lyrics
vs., 254; Pure Plantainum and, 215, 218–
19; rapero, 122; Rastafarian, 7; of reg-
gaeton and hip-hop, 216; reggaeton’s
shift in, 49–50, 60–61; Romero Joseph
on, 313; symbolic excess and, 252, 268;
Tego Calderón’s, 261; urban fashion, 216,
220; in videos, 267
African Americans: hip-hop and, 27,
205–6, 309n4, 313–15; Latinos and, 1,
148, 324; in New York, 47, 139; Puerto
Ricans and, 157; reggaeton’s origins
and, 23, 58, 149; rights of, 326; under-
ground and, 113
African diaspora, 5, 11, 24, 30, 37, 149, 327
Afro-Latino, Afro-Caribbean music: Af-
rican American influences vs., 23, 58;
dance and, 289; dancehall and, 24;
danzón and, 290; dembow (or Dem
Bow riddim) and, 65n6, 183; diasporic
forms and, 327; hip-hop and, 205; Ivy
Queen and, 300–302; in Panama, 30,
86, 88; in Puerto Rico, 113; in reggae en
español, 33; in reggaeton’s origin, 8,
149; scholarship on, 307; in under-
ground, 37
Agencia Cubana de Rap (acr), 165, 173–
74, 181, 184–85, 187–89
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