illustrations
Dancehall reggae’s minimal ‘‘bomp bomp.’’ 25
A (very) skeletal sketch of roots reggae’s ‘‘one-drop.’’ 26
Vico C’s version of a standard hip-hop beat. 29
Image from Dancehall Reggaespañol liner notes. 33
The basic elements of Puerto Rico’s localized Dem
Bow. 40
Artwork for Playero 37. 41
Artwork for Playero 38. 41
From left to right: Rasta Nini and a friend in Colón,
Panama. Photo by Christoph Twickel. 83
Lady Ann poses in front of her beauty salon in La
Chorrera, Panama. Photo by Christoph Twickel. 87
Renato at the studio. Photo by Rose Cromwell. 90
El General, Panama City, Panama. Photo by Christoph
Twickel. 100
‘‘Reggaeton a lo cubano’’ concert poster, Havana, Cuba.
Photo by Geo√ Baker. 182
Promotional image for Plátano’s single ‘‘Helicoptero.’’
Image courtesy of Heavy Management. 202
Sito Oner Rock. Photo by Time-Shift Studios. 206
Pure Plantainum at King of Platinum, 125th Street,
Miguel Luciano (2006). 218
Pure Plantainum, Miguel Luciano (2006). 219
Filiberto Ojeda Uptowns—Machetero Air Force Ones,
Miguel Luciano (2007). 220
Stills from Gran Perretón, Carolina Caycedo
(2004). 221
Tego Calderón and children, Sierra Leone. Photo by
Kacho López (2006). 222
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