acapadores middlemen who brought up the harvest for resale in larger
acordada constabulary
agraristas recipients of or petitioners for land grants from the federal
antifanatical e√orts at eradicating elements of Catholicism deemed ex-
cessive, wasteful, backwards and superstitious
apareceros tenant farmers
apertura historical opening
Arreglos ‘‘arrangements’’ between federal government and episco-
pate to end the Cristero War, they restated the Mexican
polity’s secular nature and prevented the state from inter-
fering in the Church’s internal a√airs
asistentes eclesiásticos chaplains/guides appointed by Catholic Action
atentados al pudor sexual assault
ayuntamiento town council elected to govern a municipio (both the town
or city designated the county seat and the entire county, in-
cluding the county seat and administratively subordinated
villages and hamlets); at times governors would overturn
elected ayuntamientos and directly appoint a council
beatas activist Catholic laywomen
besamanos submissive kissing of hands
cacicazgos domain of cacique
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