1. Goodall with Berman, Reason for Hope, 188–189.
2. Goodall, “Primate Spirituality,” 1304.
3. On rain, de Waal, Bonobo and the Atheist. On winds, Bekoff, Minding Animals.
On wildfires, Pruetz and LaDuke, “Brief Communication.” See also the pro-
posal that chimpanzees have ritual responses to earthquakes and pythons in
Harrod, “Case for Chimpanzee Religion,” 32.
4. De Waal, Bonobo and the Atheist, 199.
5. See Bekoff, Emotional Lives of Animals; Bekoff, Minding Animals; Goffman,
“Miracle Dolphin”; Masson, Pig Who Sang; Moss, Amboseli Elephants; Moss,
Elephant Memories; Schaller, Year of the Gorilla; Smuts, “Encounters with
Animal Minds”; White, “Dolphin’s Gaze.” See Schaefer, “Do Animals Have
Religion?” for an overview of these accounts.
6. Disraeli, Church Policy.
7. As Donna Haraway famously wrote in her “A Cyborg Manifesto,” “by the late
twentieth century in United States scientific culture, the boundary between
human and animal is thoroughly breached. The last beachheads of uniqueness
have been polluted if not turned into amusement parks— language, tool use,
social behaviour, mental events, nothing really convincingly settles the separa-
tion of human and animal.” Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs and Women, 151.
8. Goodall with Berman, Reason for Hope, 189, emphasis added.
9. Goodall, “Dance of Awe,” 653–654.
10. Goodall with Berman, Reason for Hope, 189.
11. Goodall with Berman, Reason for Hope, 72. See also Goodall, “Primate Spiritu-
ality,” 1304; Patton, “He Who Sits,” 426.
12. Browne, Charles Darwin, 251–252.
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