El Abayarde (Tego Calderón), 84, 89, 94
African Americans: blackness as property
of, 132, 151; other black- identified people
distancing from, 197n78; politics of
respectability and, 183n11; Puerto Ricans
and, 27, 138–41, 157–58; Tego Calderón
and, 97–100. See also blackness; hip- hop
Afro- Latinidad, 16, 156, 175n69, 190n62
Afro– Puerto Rican identity: bomba per-
for mance and, 94; Cortijo y su Combo
and, 92; diaspora and, 17; Loíza as center
of, 81, 96; Nuyoricans and, 25; Tego
Calderón and, 86–87, 93, 95–96, 98–103.
See also blackness
Ahora Podemos Hablar (tv show), 109
Alegría, Ricardo, 57, 88
“Americanization,” 7–8
“Amor Gitano” (La Lupe), 125
Angolan kuduro, 161–63
Anthony, Marc, 69
anticrime initiatives, 10–11, 33–37
Anti- Pornography Campaign: artist and
producer responses to, 67–71, 165–66;
critiques based on “sensual” dance forms
and race, 62–67; dancer portrayals and
interviews, 71–77; Highway 2 protest,
61–62; Ivy Queen on, 106; legislation
from, 56; newspaper headlines on, 52;
post- legislation reports, 77–80; previ-
ous censorship contrasted with, 53–54;
racialized female hypersexuality vs. re-
spectability and, 54–55, 56–59, 70, 73–77;
Senate hearings, 55–56; statements of
support and moral threat discourses,
59–62; as turning point for reggaetón,
83–84
Aparicio, Frances, 66, 120, 123, 127
Arias, Mariela, 75
Arnaz, Desi, 144
Ayala, Ramon “El Negro,” 89
Ayala, Raymond. See Daddy Yankee
Baby Ranks, 152
bachata, 121, 124
Báez, Jillian, 54, 106, 109, 110
Baker, Ejima, 141, 150–51
Barrio Fino (Daddy Yankee), 130
Beah, Ishmael, 96
bembas (big lips), 95, 189n42
bembés, 66
INDEX
Page numbers followed by f refer to illustrations.
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