1. The Commission for the Civil Defense of Salvador (Comissão de Defesa Civil
do Salvador, or
is the municipal institution in charge of preventing and
reacting to landslides, which are extremely common in this hilly, tropical city
once covered by a deep- rooted Atlantic rain forest now largely replaced by auto-
constructed housing. See, the
website, for updates on emergency responses and initiatives (last accessed August
15, 2014).
2. Monteiro Lobato 2008. The term folclórico (folkloric) is both a compliment
and an insult in the Pelourinho, where it is used to describe or upbraid someone
who performs his or her Bahian or Afro- Bahian identity too self- consciously. I em-
ploy the word in this book in a number of ways, at times ironically, but usually in
reference to the nationalist celebration of a pantheon of popular customs and hab-
its presented as typically Brazilian and authentically of the people. These traits,
imagined to ground the nation in an essential volksgeist, were an important focus
of cultural policy in the period after World War II, a period marked in Brazil by
spiraling interest in creative approaches to national culture that ended with the
U.S.- supported military coup of March 30, 1964 that ushered in a dictatorship that
lasted until the election of president Tancredo Neves in January 1985. Ortiz 1984,
1992 outlines the transformation of earlier discussions of Brazilian national cul-
ture within military attempts to reconfigure the national- popular in the service
of their centralizing and violently authoritarian national development efforts. An-
drade 1966, in a text of great importance given his influence on cultural policy
across the nation, discusses the role of folklore studies in the 1930s and 1940s un-
der the populist dictator Getúlio Vargas. See also the collection of letters between
Andrade and the dean of Brazilian folklore studies, Luís da Câmara Cascudo 2010.
3. In an example of the braiding of past, present, and future so essential to the
“heritage zone,” historical centers are also commonly referred to as “cultural heri-
tage” or simply “heritage” centers. I employ all three terms interchangeably in this
book despite recognizing the ways that “patrimony”—a term that I also employ in-
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