Epigraph: Chiang Kai- shek quoted in Deng, Guomin dang hexin zhuzhi zhenxiang,
1 Chan, “A Turning Point in the Modern Chinese Revolution,” 224–41; Gilmartin,
Engendering the Chinese Revolution, 131–41; Kwan, Marxist Intellectuals and the
Chinese Labor Movement, esp. ch. 2; Tsin, Nation, Governance, and Modernity in
2 The city was also called Red Canton by Western journalists. Gilmartin, Engen-
dering the Chinese Revolution, 152; Ho Chi Minh, then known as Ngyuen Ai
Quoc, was dispatched by Moscow to Canton in 1925 to assist with local peasant
or ga ni za tion and to work with representatives from China, Korea, the Dutch
East Indies, and India in forming the Society of the Oppressed Peoples of Asia.
Ho remained in Canton until Chiang Kai-shek’s 1927 party purge. Duiker, Ho Chi
Minh, 122, 141–45.
3 Murdock, Disarming the Allies of Imperialism, 188–93; Perry, Shanghai on Strike,
91; Wilson, “Princi ples and Proﬁts,” 628.
4 Tsin, Nation, Governance, and Modernity in China, 103–9.
5 Tsui, “China’s Forgotten Revolution,” esp. introduction and ch. 1. Also Tsui,
China’s Conservative Revolution.
6 Dai, Sanminzhuyi zhi zhexue de jichu, 15. Slavoj Žižek has identiﬁed this as a
desire for “capitalism without capitalism,” or a system of industrial production
grounded in cap i tal ist social relations without concomitant alienation or class
strife in Organs without Bodies, 165; also see Harry Harootunian’s extended his-
torical elaboration on this idea in Overcome by Modernity.
7 Sun Yat- sen [Sun Zhongshan], Sanminzhuyi, 52–53.
8 This book uses the terms semicolonialism and colonial modernity to describe the
circumstances that Chinese fascists sought to overcome and to prevent from