1 Paz, Labyrinth of Solitude and Other Writings, 66.
2 Alegría, Emancipación Femenina; Novedades, 15 August 1977.
3 Michel, Marxistas y ‘‘marxistas.’’
4 Daniels to Secretary of State, 28 January 1936, nara, 812.00/30334.
5 Michel, Casa-escuela de la mujer trabajadora.
6 El Nacional, 17 November 1937, 1. Women’s su√rage appeared so certain that a
contemporary observer erroneously commented in a work published in 1939 that
Cárdenas had granted women’s su√rage, and another historian recently repeated
the mistaken assertion: Plenn, Mexico Marches, 322; Cockcroft, Mexico’s Hope, 129.
7 Ashby, Organized Labor and the Mexican Revolution under Lázaro Cárdenas; Gilly,
Cartas a Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas, El cardenismo, and La revolución interrumpida; Tan-
nenbaum, Mexico; Townsend, Lázaro Cárdenas. Revisionist scholars, responding to
the post-1968 crisis of confidence in a regime still clinging desperately and hypo-
critically to the label ‘‘revolutionary,’’ often viewed the Cárdenas period as the
moment when regime consolidation foreclosed the possibility of a truly popular
revolutionary movement: Córdova, La ideología de la revolución mexicana, La política
de masas del cardenismo, and La revolución y el estado en México; Hamilton, The Limits
of State Autonomy; Medin, Ideología y praxis política de Lázaro Cárdenas. Postrevi-
sionists, particularly in light of the democratic challenge by Cárdenas’s son Cuauh-
témoc, have softened this characterization, dispensing with the hero-or-villain
debate that painted Cárdenas as ‘‘redeemer or tarnished messiah’’ or surrounded
him with ‘‘mythology and black legend,’’ and taking seriously the actions and
aspirations of popular actors rather than seeing them as hapless pawns of the politi-
cal elite: Bantjes, As If Jesus Walked on Earth, xiv; Becker, Setting the Virgin on Fire, 4;
see also Boyer, Becoming Campesinos; Cortés Zavala, Lázaro Cárdenas y su proyecto
cultural en Michoacán; Fallaw, Cárdenas Compromised; Joseph and Nugent, Everyday
Forms of State Formation; Knight, ‘‘Cardenismo: Juggernaut or Jalopy?’’ ‘‘Popular
Culture and the Revolutionary State in Mexico, 1910–1940,’’ and ‘‘Populism and
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