Appendix 1
Methodological Approach
The research that I carried out over several years to write this study seeks to
understand history as a class struggle. Its methodology is guided by a dual
lens. On the one hand, there is a systematic and meticulous recording of what
I refer to as the “practical scope” of a determined social struggle. This refers to
its regional or national significance, the specific ways the conflict is displayed
and developed, the types of social articulation that it produces or re‑creates,
its ability to influence the network of power dynamics in a specific society at a
particular point in time, and so on. On the other hand, what is equally impor‑
tant is that it does not simply seek to understand “what it is” but also “what
it can be.” I therefore make the exhaustive and rigorous contrast between the
following: what is produced within the struggle itself as its “interior horizon,”
meaning what is expressed as a desire and explicit intention by those who are
in the movement; what they say in their slogans and documents; what they
do not clearly express but rather suggest and implicitly outline with their ac‑
tions and through other modes of expression; the contradictions and inco‑
herence between what they say and do before, during, and after the most criti‑
cal moments in the struggle; and so forth. Ultimately, the explicit intention
throughout is to give myself tools to not only understand what it is and what
is happening but also to have insight into what could happen, what outcome
is possible as the product of collective efforts.
In the following table, in a very schematic and thus deficient and distorted
way, I illustrate my methodology with elements organized according to this
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