1. It was also often known at the time as the Red Ayllus (Ayllus Rojos), using the
Andean term ayllu for indigenous communities.
2. Gutiérrez Aguilar and Iturri Salmón (1995) was later republished as Gutiérrez
Aguilar (2006).
3. Gutiérrez Aguilar (1996) was later republished in Gutiérrez Aguilar (2006).
Gutiérrez plays here with the double meaning of the Spanish term poder, which can
be a verb, meaning “to be able,” or a noun, meaning “power.” She essentially counter‑
poses human capability and creativity (el poder- hacer) against the imposition of
power (el poder- imposición). John Holloway would subsequently draw the same dis‑
tinction between what he termed “power‑to‑do” (potentia) and “power‑over” (po-
4. See Gutiérrez Aguilar’s (1999b, 2000, 2001a, 2001b, 2002) essays in several Co‑
muna publications.
5. The book was initially published in 2008 as Los ritmos del Pachakuti: Movili-
zación y levantamiento indígena- popular en Bolivia (2000–2005) (La Paz: Textos Re‑
beldes, 2008). In a notable sign of the international interest in Bolivia at the time and
of Gutiérrez Aguilar’s own international engagements, the book was also published
the same year by Tinta Limón in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where Gutiérrez Aguilar
was engaged with intellectual and activist groups on the autonomist Left. Colectivo
Situaciones contributed the prologue to the Argentine edition.
6. Holloway has long been based at the Autonomous University of Puebla, where
he codirects the seminar on Subjectivity and Critical Theory. Gutiérrez Aguilar took
up a teaching position at the university in 2012.
1. This metaphor, which casts moments in the struggle as lightning bolts that
allow us to see what was hidden in the darkness, comes from Raúl Zibechi (2006).
2. It is worth clarifying the unique, intimate relationship that I maintain with
what is, according to academic standards, my “object of study.” I lived in Bolivia be‑
tween 1984 and 2001, and I was fortunate to know about and participate in various
organizing and political efforts in that country.
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