1. Nicole Hogg, “Women’s Participation in the Rwandan Genocide: Mothers or Mon-
sters?,” International Review of the Red Cross 92 (March 2010): 69 102.
2. Joseph Nye, “When Women Lead,” Project Syndicate, February 8, 2012, http://www
.project- women- lead.
3. Another notable exception in addition to Hogg, “Women’s Participation in the
Rwandan Genocide,” is African Rights, Rwanda Not So Innocent (London: African Rights,
4. Central Intelligence Agency, “Africa: Rwanda,” in The World Factbook, 2013, https:// world- factbook/geos/rw.html.
1. Foremothers
Epigraph: Peace Uwineza and Elizabeth Pearson, “Sustaining Women’s Gains in Rwanda:
The Influence of Indigenous Culture and Post- genocide Politics” (Washington, DC: In-
stitute for Inclusive Security, 2009), 8.
1. The National Gender Policy (Kigali: Government of Rwanda, 2004).
2. The Pressure Builds
1. Valerie M. Hudson, Bonnie Ballif- Spanvill, Mary Caprioli, and Chad F. Emmett, Sex
and World Peace (New York: Columbia University Press, 2012).
2. Intertwined with ethnic motivations for the genocide was a backlash against wom-
en’s expanding roles in pregenocide Rwanda. As anthropologist Christopher Taylor wrote
in his seminal work on the sexual dynamics of the violence: “To many Rwandans gender
relations in the 1980s and 1990s were falling into a state of decadence as more women
attained positions of prominence in economic and public life, and as more of them exer-
cised their personal preferences in their private lives.” Taylor found that representations
of women, especially in the vulgar cartoons published in extremist newspapers in the
years leading up to the genocide, “foreshadowed the degree of sadism perpetrated by
extremists on the bodies of their victims.” Christopher Taylor, Sacrifice as Terror: The
Rwandan Genocide of 1994 (New York: Bloomsbury, 1999), 157.
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