I can name only a few of the many Nicaraguans who led me to documents by
and about Fonseca and shared with me their memories of him. Lt. Col.
Ricardo Wheelock Roman, Juana Quintana, and Soraya Sánchez unlocked
the doors to the large archive of Fonseca’s unpublished writings at the Nica-
raguan army’s Centro de Historia Militar. Margarita Vannini and her sta√ at
the Instituto de Historia de Nicaragua made available the rich collection of
manuscripts, newspapers, and published works at the ihn and the Instituto
de Historia Centroamericana and provided a comfortable and collegial
workplace during my three trips to Nicaragua. Miguel Ángel Herrera of the
ihn, who has studied the writings of Carlos Fonseca with love and respect
for almost two decades, shared his insights and his considerable knowledge.
Of the many friends and compañeros of Fonseca who granted me interviews,
I want to single out his high school friend Ramón Gutiérrez Castro and his
widow María Haydeé Terán. I went back again and again to their homes in
Rivas and León and each time came away with a better understanding of
Fonseca and his times. Sylvia Torres provided crucial assistance, both in
Nicaragua and in Pittsburgh.
Grants and fellowships from the Andrew Mellon Foundation, Center for
Latin American Studies at the University of Pittsburgh, and the Cole and
Marty Blazier Award financed the field research for the Ph.D. dissertation on
which this book is based.
A number of scholars and friends read part or all of the dissertation or
book manuscript (and in the case of a few heroic souls, both): Reid Andrews,
John Beverley, Barry Carr, Deborah Higdon, Donald Hodges, Michael Jimé-
nez, Jim Miller, Aaron Ruby, James Sanders, Larry Seigle, Bob Schwarz,
Volker Wuenderich, and the anonymous readers of Duke University Press.