1 Barricada (Managua), 6–8 November 1979; La Prensa (Managua), 7–8 November
1979; Intercontinental Press (New York), 3 Dec. 1979; all translations by author unless
2 Carlos Fonseca Amador, S´ ıntesis de algunos problemas actuales, in Obras, vol. 1 (Mana-
gua: Editorial Nueva Nicaragua, 1982), 98–99; italics in original.
3 Earl Browder was the general secretary of the Communist Party in the United States
from 1930 to 1944.
4 The most extreme form of this thesis is found in the work of Cancino, who starts with
the premise that Marxism is fundamentally incompatible with nationalism and that
‘‘there is no way to integrate elements of nationalist discourse with marxist-leninist
discourse’’; see Hugo Cancino Troncoso, Las ra´ ıces históricas e ideológicas del movimi-
ento sandinista: Antecedentes de la revolución popular nicaragüense, 1927–79 (Odense:
Odense University Press, 1984), 140.
5 Carlos Fonseca Amador to Compañero Denis, 17 Sept. 1960, IES Archive.
6 I was in Cuba for most of July 1979 and attended the 26 July rally. Thousands of
Cubans had turned out at the airport to greet the expected delegation of two or three
Nicaraguans. It was a moment of high drama as the young fatigue-clad guerrillas
slowly emerged from the airplane one after another, in a seemingly endless line.
7 See, for example, George Black, Triumph of the People: The Sandinista Revolution in
Nicaragua (London: Zed Press, 1981); John A. Booth, The End and the Beginning: The
Nicaraguan Revolution (Boulder: Westview, 1982); Julio López C., Orlando Núñez S.,
and Carlos Fernando Chamorro B., La ca´ ıda del somocismo y la lucha sandinista en
Nicaragua (San José: educa, 1979); Manlio Tirado, La revolución sandinista (México,
D.F.: Editorial Nuestro Tiempo, 1983); Thomas W. Walker, Nicaragua in Revolution
(New York: Praeger, 1982). None of these scholars goes as far as a recent book claiming
that the Cuban revolution had little impact anywhere in Central America outside of
Guatemala; see Thomas C. Wright, Latin America in the Era of the Cuban Revolution
(Westport: Praeger, 1991), 178. Two studies of Nicaragua that give greater emphasis to