glossary

Manyofthetermsusedinthisvolumearehighlydebated,andreadersareurged
to look carefully in each essay for discussions of usage.This glossary is there-
fore not a definitive guide.
Assen and HakenGyosha: Japanesewords referring to labor brokers (gyosha) who
act as intermediaries (assen) between workers and employers by hiring the
former and dispatching (haken) them to work in the latters’ factories.
colônia-jin: a term by Japanese and their descendants in Brazil to represent per-
manence rather than a desire to return to Japan.
dekasegui (including the Portuguesevariant dekassegui or the Japanese romaniza-
tion dekasegi): in its original usage in Japan, this term was used for people
who left their birthplace to work temporarily elsewhere. More recently it
has come to mean foreign workers of Japanese descent in Japan.
empreiteira:contractemploymentfirm.ThesecompaniesrecruitBrazilianwork-
ers to and in Japan.
frontdoor and backdoor: typesofgovernmentalpoliciescontrollingadmissionof
unskilled foreign workers. A front-door policy makes contract labor pro-
grams legally available to unskilled foreign workers; a back-door policy
officially prohibits unskilled foreign workers from being employed but in
practice admits them through the ‘‘back door’’ of artificial contract labor
programs.
gaijin: outsider or foreigner; a person who is not Japanese. In Brazil this term
is often used by Nikkei for non-Nikkei Brazilians.
haiku: Japanese seventeen-syllable poetry.
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