This book uses modern Hawaiian orthography, which uses diacriti-
cal marks for Hawaiian- language terms: the ‘okina (‘) marks a glottal
stop and the kahakō is a macron indicating a long vowel sound. I do
not italicize Hawaiian words, as they are not foreign to Hawai‘i. When
quoting directly from sources, however, I have preserved the spelling
of original sources for historical accuracy.
1. Lyons, American Paciﬁcism, 8.
2. Gerhardt, “America’s Paciﬁc Century?”
3. I borrow the phrase from Isaac, American Tropics, to contrast the con-
stant pull of American imperial desire against a historiographical will
4. Williams, Marxism and Literature, and Berger, Ways of Seeing.
5. On the diﬀerential mobilities that make up empire, see Ballantyne
and Burton, Moving Subjects.
6. Haraway, “The Cyborg Manifesto,” 168.
7. Enloe, Maneuvers, 68.
8. Enloe, Globalization and Militarism.
9. “Liberalization with a Human Face,” World Tourism Organization,
www.world-tourism.org/liberalization/menu.htm (accessed May 9,
2004). The website points out that this program follows the UN Mil-
lennium Development Goals as well as the Global Code of Ethics on
fair trade and poverty alleviation of the United Nations’ World Tour-
ism Organization (UNwto). On the uneven economic relations fos-
tered between countries that send tourists, and those less- developed
economies for whom tourism is a prescription, see Kincaid, A Small
Place; Nash, “Tourism as a Form of Imperialism”; Mowforth and
Munt, Tourism and Sustainability; and Britton, “The Political Economy
of Tourism in the Third World.”