11 Freud, ‘‘The Ego and the Id. V: The Dependent Relationships of the Eg
in Gay, The Freud Reader, 654.
12 Freud, ‘‘The Ego and the Id. III: The Ego and the Super-Ego (Ego Idea
in Gay, The Freud Reader, 643.
13 Jung discusses the idea of the doppelgänger in relation to the fourth cy
of the hero myth that involves the twin children of the Sun, who have op
site personalities. Following their separation, they seek endlessly to be
united. See Carl Jung, Man and His Symbols (New York: Dell, 1964), 1
14 W. J. T. Mitchell, Picture Theory: Essays on Verbal and Visual Representa
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 183–207. Mitchell provi
a complex and deeply nuanced discussion of the genre of the slave na
tive and the challenge of knowing that which can never be known ab
the experiences of people who were systematically denied voice and p
15 Edgar Allan Poe, ‘‘Legeia,’’ in The Tell Tale Heart and Other Writings (N
York: Bantam, 1982), 64, 70.
16 Marilyn Yalom, A History of the Breast (New York: Knopf, 1997), 8. A disc
sion of American slavery and the breast is found on 123–125.
17 E. Hellerstein et al., eds., Victorian Women: A Documentary Account of Wom
Lives in Nineteenth-Century England, France, and the United States (Stanfo
Stanford University Press, 1981), 231–232, quoted in Yalom, A History o
Breast, 124.
18 Toni Morrison, Beloved (New York: Plume, 1988), 200.
19 It is important to note that in the ‘‘real-life’’ story of Margaret Garn
on which the fictional tale of Beloved is based, the child that Garner k
was probably fathered by her master, Archibald Gaines. The horror of
moment is intensified when Gaines discovers the body of his dead dau
ter and bursts into hysterics, thus emphasizing the complex nature of
milial love and relationships under slavery. For more on Garner, see Ste
Weisenburger, Modern Medea (New York: Hill and Wang, 1998).
20 ‘‘At a time at which the first beginnings of sexual satisfaction are still lin
with the taking of nourishment, the sexual instinct has a sexual object o
side the infant’s own body in the shape of his mother’s breast. . . . But e
after sexual activity has become detached from the taking of nourishme
an important part of this first and most significant of all sexual relati
is left over, which helps to prepare for the choice of an object and thu
restore the happiness that has been lost. All through the period of late
children learn to feel for other people who help them in their helplessn
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