not e s
Leaders and Legacies: From Modemismo
to Readions and the Contemporary
For the sake of clarity and distinction, the Portuguese term
will be used
throughout to refer
the Brazilian movement. The more general term "modernism"
will be employed to refer to the early-century renewal of the
in the Western world,
especially in Europe. It should be kept in mind that the Spanish usage of
refers to the late nineteenth-century aestheticism (influenced by Parnassianism and
symbolism) in Spanish America and Spain that preceded the experimentation of
or avant-garde, which would be the nearest equivalent to Brazilian
Toda aAmtrica (1926).
For extensive bibliography on the key avant-garde phase, see Merlin H. Forster and
K. David Jackson,
Vanguardism in Latin American Literaturt:: An Annotated Biblio-
(Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press,
The Brazil section of this
most useful source (pp.
focuses on studies published since
ble English-language studies will be highlighted here.
3 David William Foster, "Spanish American and Brazilian Literature: A History of
4 The only book-length English-language study of the movement focused on poetry is
(Austin: University of Texas Press,
Nist also edited, with Yolanda Leite,
Modem Brazilian Poetry: An Anthology
ington: Indiana University Press,
the former, Nist narrates circumstances
leading up to and involving the Modern Art Week. See also the introduction to
ed.,AnAnthology o/BrazilianModemist Poetry
which is derived from an essay by Mano da Silva Brito, the
leading historian of the movement. For a broader view of
in an English-
language source, see Wilson Martins,
TheModemist Idea: A Critical
Writing in the 20th Century, trans.
Jack E. Tomlins (New York: New York University
reprint, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press,
and Aframo Cou-
An Introduction to Litemturt: in Brazil, trans.
Gregory Rabassa (New York: