Primary research for this book was conducted in
with a Fulbright
Regional Research Fellowship and in
with an award from the Divi-
sion of Sponsored Research of the University of Florida. Preliminary
findings were made during a previous stay in Brazil with a
from the Organization of American States. Since work on this project
began, I have had useful, inspiring, and friendly contact with so many
poets, professors, critics, scholars, publishers, and independent writers
in Brazil that listing them presents a problem, for
the reasons known
to those who gather information over a period of years and encounter
countless generous people. This result would hardly have been possible
their help. Those who have assisted me in the present en-
deavor know who they are and have my gratitude. Almost
of these
individuals appear in chapter endnotes. At the risk of omitting anyone
here, or of giving any wrong impressions of order, I prefer to give a
collective and energetic thank you very much - muito obrtgado - to
Brazil who lent a hand, an ear, or an eye, from the eixo Rio de J aneiro-
Sao Paulo to Curitiba, Belo Horizonte, Brasilia, Salvador, Fortaleza,
Belem do Para, and points in between.
During the writing stages here, I was fortunate
to have the editorial
advice and professional encouragement of colleagues around the country
whom I would like to recognize: Roland Greene, Randal Johnson,
Vicky Unruh, Jon Vincent, Amelia Simpson, and Irwin Stern. Claus
Cliiver was very helpful with materials. Since one chapter and parts of
others have their origins in my dissertation, I would also like to recog-
the doctoral committee again for long-term, as well as more recent,
contributions to the research for and ultimate realization of the present
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