notes to chapter two • 229
17 For a condensed history of Cathay’s ﬁlm- related enterprises, see Chung, “A South-
east Asian Tycoon and His Movie Dream.” For a more detailed portrait of the or ga ni-
za tion, see Lim, Cathay.
18 On the history of the Shaw movie empire, see Chung, “The Industrial Evolution of a
Fraternal Enterprise”; Curtin, Playing to the World’s Biggest Audience, chapter 1; and
Shaw’s oﬃcial company website, http://www.shaw.sg/sw_about.aspx.
19 Most accounts— including that on the Shaw Brothers company website— give 1957
as the year that the land in Clearwater Bay was acquired by Run Run Shaw. Accord-
ing to I. C. Jarvie, the land was in fact acquired in 1954, although construction there
did not begin until much later (Window on Hong Kong, 44).
20 “Shaw Studio, 1960,” Shaw Online, stored at http://www.shaw.sg/sw_about.aspx
(click on Shaw Studio, Hong Kong).
21 Cited in Chung, “The Industrial Evolution of a Fraternal Enterprise,” 5.
22 Teo, Hong Kong Cinema, 74.
23 Figures from Kwok, Hong Kong Filmography, vols. 4 and 5.
24 Many accounts portray Run Run Shaw as an indefatigable micromanager, enamored
of show business, whose imprimatur was stamped on every ﬁlm put out by Shaw
Brothers. For instance, see Jarvie’s description based on ﬁrsthand observation in
Window on Hong Kong, 46–47. See also Curtin, Playing to the World’s Biggest Audience,
chapter 2; Fu, introduction, 5–6.
25 The ﬁrst issue of International Screen was published in Singapore in 1952, but its run
as a regularly monthly magazine began only with its inaugural Hong Kong issue,
which appeared in October 1955.
26 Zhang Z., An Amorous History of the Silver Screen, 73–74. According to Zhang, the
ﬁrst ﬁlm magazine appeared in 1921, and by the middle of the de cade there were
nearly thirty in print (ibid., 73).
27 By the middle of the 1930s, Michael Chang writes, the stars of the Shanghai- based
ﬁlm industry “ were constituted within the discourse of a well- established urban
mass media and a highly eﬃcient promotional system. Their ﬁlm careers were
entirely the products of this system and the speed of their ascendancy attests to the
eﬀectiveness of the new promotional machinery” (“The Good, the Bad, and the
28 In these years producers took over a function previously associated with impresa-
rio ﬁgures like Li Jinhui, whose Bright Moon Song and Dance Troupe trained an
early generation of actresses, and Bu Wancang, the émigré Chinese director who
discovered and trained some of the key actresses of postwar Hong Kong cinema at
his Taishan Training Institute.
29 Chung, “A Southeast Asian Tycoon and His Movie Dream,” 14.
30 Cheng, “Reminiscences of the Life of an Actress in Shaw Brothers’ Movietown,” 247.
31 On the revivals of wuxia pian, see J. Ma, “Circuitous Action: Revenge Cinema.”
32 Fu, introduction, 12.
33 One example is the Shaw-produced backstage musical Qian jiao bai mei (Les Belles),
directed by Doe Ching, which received ﬁve awards at the eighth Asian Film Festival,
including those for best art direction, best music, and best actress (for its lead