232 • notes to chapter two
66 Judith Zeitlin notes that at least 115 opera ﬁlms were made in the PRC between 1953
and 1966, a period when the government actively promoted pop u lar folkloric tradi-
tions (“Operatic Ghosts on Screen,” 220).
67 On the reception of The Love Eterne in Taiwan, see P. Chiao, “The Female Conscious-
ness, the World of Signiﬁcation and Safe Extramarital Aﬀairs,” 75–77. For a detailed
discussion of The Love Eterne and Huangmei diao pian, see Tan, “Huangmei Opera
Films, Shaw Brothers and Ling Bo.”
68 E. Yeh, “China,” 172. On operatic aesthetics, see Bao, “The Politics of Remediation.”
69 Han, “The Design and Style of Opera Films,” 447.
70 Chang also starred in Bao lian deng (The Magic Lamp), one of the few Huangmei
opera ﬁlms produced by mp&gi.
71 Quoted in X. Chen, “Woman, Generic Aesthetics, and the Vernacular,” 184.
72 Wong Kee Chee, The Age of Shanghainese Pops, 198. This modernizing tendency
is also found in the Cantonese opera ﬁlms of this period, where opera songs are
sometimes combined with contemporary settings, Western costumes, and versions
of Hollywood plots. A well- known example is Xuangong yanshi (My Kingdom for a
Husband), a remake of a 1934 Western- costume opera ﬁlm that in turn was adapted
from the 1929 Hollywood musical The Love Parade. For a discussion of this ﬁlm, see
Yung S., Xunmi Yueju sheng ying, 92; Y. Wang, “The ‘Transnational’ as Methodology,”
73 X. Chen, “Woman, Generic Aesthetics, and the Vernacular,” 180.
74 Jones writes:“The modern songs of the urban petit bourgeoisie were thought to be
tainted by both their commercial vulgarity and their cultural hybridity . . . the de-
cadent sounds that ﬁlled the record stores, the airwaves, and the dance halls were
seen as incitements to po liti cal indiscipline” (Yellow Music, 27).
75 See Jones, Yellow Music, chapter 4.
76 It must be noted that although Mandarin pop thrived in its new production base, the
indigenous music that had dominated Hong Kong’s soundscape before 1949, consist-
ing primarily of Cantonese opera tunes and yueyu liuxing ge (Cantonese pop u lar
songs), maintained a continuous and signiﬁcant presence in the postwar de cades.
This indigenous musical tradition informs the Cantopop style, which would come to
displace Mandarin shidai qu and dominate Hong Kong pop u lar music from the 1970s
onward. The relation of Cantonese and Mandarin music can be likened to that of the
two ﬁlm industries: coexisting as separate culture industries divided by a linguistic
gulf, yet joined by points of intersection and resonances.
77 Wong Kee Chee, The Age of Shanghainese Pops, 140, 212.
78 “Peiyin yu muhou gechang,” 48.
79 Wong Kee Chee, The Age of Shanghainese Pops, 140.
80 “Baidai changpian gongshi wangluo Dianmau qunxing,” 50.
81 An International Screen feature article in the following year on Grace Chang’s vaca-
tion in Tokyo reports that the star was chaperoned on her travels by Wang, suggest-
ing the extent of the latter’s involvement with the artists whose careers she managed
(“Ge Lan xiaoyou Riben,” 54).
82 Jones, Yellow Music, 64.