238 • notes to chapter three
51 Naremore, Acting in the Cinema, 71.
52 Naremore, Acting in the Cinema, 71.
53 Majumdar, Wanted Cultured Ladies Only!, 138. Double roles in Indian cinema typi-
cally have a narrative basis in stories about identical siblings, multiple generations,
54 Majumdar, Wanted Cultured Ladies Only!, 144.
55 Majumdar, Wanted Cultured Ladies Only!, 127.
56 Turner and Ngan, Hong Kong Sixties, 86. A similar plotline appears in the 1960 ﬁlm
Xi xiang feng (Dreams Come True), in which Kitty Ting Hao plays a poor flower seller
who is taken in by a wealthy family that mistakes her for an acquaintance and who
wins the aﬀections of the son.
57 Moseley, “Trousers and Tiaras,” 39. On Hepburn’s relationship with postwar fashion,
see Studlar, “ ‘Chi-Chi Cinderella.’ ”
58 Barthes, Mythologies, 57.
59 Barthes, Mythologies, 57. The analysis of Hepburn serves as a foil to Barthes’s rumina-
tions on the face of Greta Garbo, which he associates with the absolute, the eternal,
and the singular.
60 The pre sen ta tion of Yueying as a tele vi sion star is somewhat prophetic, given that
tele vi sion was far from a signiﬁcant mass medium at the time of the ﬁlm’s release.
Broadcast tele vi sion had been introduced to Hong Kong only three years earlier, pro-
gramming was still extremely limited, and tele vi sion sets were seen as novel luxury
items. See Hampton, “Early Hong Kong Tele vi sion.”
61 Herzog, Dreams of Diﬀerence, 7.
62 McMillin, The Musical as Drama, 21.
Chapter 4. the mambo girl
1 Ho, “The Songstress, the Farmer’s Daughter, the Mambo Girl and the Songstress
2 The association of Chang’s characters with toy dolls calls to mind a silent- era Shang-
hai ﬁlm, Xiao wanyi (Little Toys), which draws a similar parallel between toys and
children. For an analysis of this ﬁlm, see Jones, Developmental Fairy Tales, chapter 4.
3 Chang and Chung both honed their talents at the Taishan Training Institute, under
the supervision of the director Bu Wancang. The two made their screen debut in two
ﬁlms directed by Bu and released in 1953, Lian chun qu (The Song of Spring) and Qi
jiemei (Seven Maidens). Chung vaulted to stardom in 1956 with the release of Songs
of the Peach Blossom River, and Chang did the same in the following year with Mambo
4 Queen of Sports was remade in 1961 by mp&gi, using the same title.
5 See Chin, “Translating the New Woman.”
6 See F. Wong, “Industrialization and Family Structure in Hong Kong.”
7 Faure, Colonialism and the Hong Kong Mentality, 75.
8 A survey conducted in Hong Kong in 1968 revealed that in 30 percent of house holds,
one or more children age fourteen or younger had a job, either on a part- or full-time