1. The introduction details the political and historical background of the Asian Debt
Crisis. The South Korean government oﬃcially announced 2001 as the end of the
crisis because that is when the nation had repaid its debt to foreign lenders. De-
spite this oﬃcial “end” and the subsequent economic recovery (albeit only par-
tial), the impact of the crisis on the working poor and on the dispossessed is
2. My conceptualization of liberalism and neoliberalism is built on both Foucauldian
literature (Foucault 1990, 1991) and Marxist understanding (Harvey 2005; Jessop
2002). See the introduction of this book.
3. This book uses youth interchangeably with young adults to refer to college and
high school graduates just entering the job market. In the South Korean context,
people in their late thirties who are not married are also considered youth. In
addition, un(der)employed is often used to describe the unstable boundary between
youth employment and unemployment.
4. As Arjun Appadurai (1996) notes, the global ethnoscape contains many multi-
dimensional “scapes” (economy, technology, mass media, culture). The analysis
of mass media and juxtaposition of crucial literature and social events are impor-
tant to contextualize people’s narratives and political economy.
5. In the Korean social context, “intellectual” usually refers to someone with a uni-
6. Although it is not uncommon for bureaucracy to be used interchangeably with the
state, the former is an institutional apparatus of the latter (Hall 1984:19).
7. Regarding the limitations of the term governance and its distinction from govern-
mentality, see Sigley 2006; Larner and Walters 2004.
8. It is important to note that studies illuminating the multilayered and intricate
inner dynamics of state bureaucracy are rare, though growing, since Nader sug-
gested “studying up” almost three decades ago (1974). Recent studies include
Ferguson 1994, Gill 2000, Gupta 2001, and Hertzfeld 1992.
9. Examples of anthropological works on homelessness that include homeless
people as central subjects include Lyon-Callo 2004, Gowan 2000, Fowler 1996,
Passaro 1996, and Susser 1999.