Working on this project over the years has only heightened my appreciation
for the treasure troves housed in libraries and archives all over the world. I
am forever thankful to Columbia University Libraries, in particular Avery
Architectural and Fine Arts Library; libraries at the University of Pennsylva-
nia; Yale University Art and Architecture Library; the Getty Research Insti-
tute, Research Library, Special Collections and Visual Resources; New York
University, Bobst Library and The Fales Library & Special Collections; Ar-
chives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution; New York Public Library,
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, and the librarian Sharon
Howard; Manuscripts, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Emory Univer-
sity, and Randall Burkett, curator; the libraries at the Whitney Museum of
American Art, the Museum of Modern Art, New York, and the Balch Art Re-
search Library, Los Angeles County Museum of Art; and especially Univer-
sity of California, Los Angeles, Department of Special Collections, Charles E.
Young Research Library, and particularly the librarians Jeffrey Rankin and
Octavio Olvera. Interview excerpts with Kinshasha Holman Conwill, Alonzo
Davis, Cecil Fergerson, Marvin Harden, Suzanne Jackson, Samella Lewis,
John Outterbridge, William Pajaud, Noah Purifoy, John Riddle, Betye Saar,
Curtis Tann, and Ruth Waddy were conducted by the ucla Oral History Pro-
gram, Department of Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library.
I thank them for their assistance.
My writing beneﬁted from several residencies and fellowships: from the
Rockefeller Foundation, Bellagio Study and Conference Center, Italy; Terra
Foundation for American Art in Europe, Giverny, France; McColl Center for
Visual Art, Charlotte, NC; and Columbia University. Thanks to all for believ-
ing in this book.