1 Emmet J. Scott, “Additional Letters of Negro Migrants, 1916– 18,” Journal of
Negro History 4, no. 4 (October 1919): 413.
2 Scott, “Additional Letters of Negro Migrants, 1916– 18,” 413.
3 Throughout this book, I use pseudonyms for girls whose stories appear in un-
published manuscripts and court records. Real names are used in the book
when the name appeared in a newspaper or magazine. “What I Can Remem-
ber,” E. Franklin Frazier Papers,
4 For more on the Great Migration, see: James Grossman, Land of Hope: Chi-
cago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration (Chicago: University of
Chi cago Press, 1989); Nicholas Lemann, The Promised Land: The Great Black
Migration and How It Changed America (New York: Vintage Books, 1992);
Farrah Jasmine Griffin, Who Set You Flowin’? The African- American Migration
Narrative (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996); Adam Green, Selling the
Race: Culture, Community, and Black Chicago, 1940– 1955 (Chicago: Univer-
sity of Chicago Press, 2007), and Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other
Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration (New York: Random House,
2010). The majority of Great Migration scholarship focuses on northern and
eastern cities, but the story of the migration to the West is also important. For
more on the Migration’s national implication, see Annelise Orleck, Storming
Caesar’s Palace: How Black Mothers Staged Their Own War on Poverty (Bos-
ton: Beacon Press, 2005), and Donna Jean Murch, Living for the City: Migra-
tion, Education, and the Rise of the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California
(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010).
5 Michele Mitchell captures black hopes and cautious optimism in her study of
the “politics of racial destiny” after the decline of Reconstruction reforms. See
Michele Mitchell, Righteous Propagation: African Americans and the Politics
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