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Notes
Introduction
1. Dunn, Brutality Garden, 137.
2. Octávio Costa, in D’Araujo et al., Os anos de chumbo: A Repressão, 264.
3. Dunn, Brutality Garden, 148.
4. Dunn, Brutality Garden, 137.
5. Here I follow the lead of the many Brazilian historians of this period who
initiated this terminology. As one example, see Daniel Aarão Reis Filho’s argument
in favor of this usage in Ditadura militar, esquerdas e sociedade.
6. ‘‘Secundarista oferece uma rosa amarela à pm,’’ Jornal do Brasil, October 11,
1968.
7. ‘‘dops prende quem mostra entusiasmo pela canção de Vandré defronte às
lojas,’’ Jornal do Brasil, October 12, 1968.
8. The expression ‘‘the years of lead’’ (os anos de chumbo) emerged in the 1980s
and is a Portuguese paraphrase of Die Bleierne Zeit, the original title of a film from
1981 by Margarethe von Trotta. The film is a fictionalized version of the real story of
two sisters, one of whom is a member of the Red Army Faction in the 1970s and
dies in prison, while the other sees her life destroyed by the repression and disrup-
tion of the period. For English-language audiences the release title was Marianne
and Juliane.
9. Aldo Rebelo interview, Projeto Memória do Movimento Estudantil (hereafter
pmme).
10. Acronyms in Brazilian Portuguese, when feasible, are typically spoken as
words, not spelled out as they are in U.S. English. Therefore, rather than ‘‘the
U.N.E.,’’ UNE is pronounced as a single word, ‘‘oo-nay’’ and is treated as a proper
noun.
11. The literature on student activism in the 1960s around the world is too vast to
note in its entirety, but see, for example, the following comparative histories:
Boren, Student Resistance; Caute, The Year of the Barricades; Fraser, 1968: A Student
Generation in Revolt; Klimke, The Other Alliance; Suri, Power and Protest.
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