Notes
introduction
1. Sociologists first popularized the concept of the ‘‘tipping point’’ in the 1970s in di
sions of the flight of whites from northeastern cities to the suburbs with the arriv
AfricanAmericans.Theconceptwasusedtoidentifythemomentwhenaneighborh
orcommunity would ‘‘tip’’: a moment when the arrival of a sufficient numberof
canAmericanswouldleadtoanalmostimmediateflightoftheremainingwhitesin
neighborhood. See Malcolm Gladwell, TheTipping Point: How LittleThings Can M
BigDifference(2000;Boston:LittleBrown,2002),esp.3–14.Theterm,ofcourse,has
acquiredthestatusofacliché;seeWilliamSafire,‘‘OnLanguage:Tipping;ThePoi
NoReturn,’’ NewYorkTimesMagazine,July27,2003,15.
2. SeeKatherineMayo,MotherIndia(NewYork:Harcourt,Brace,1927;andLondon:J
thanCape,1927);SalmanRushdie,TheSatanicVerses (London:Viking,1988);andR
ard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structu
American Life (New York: Free Press, 1994). My aim, of course, is not to suggest
similaritybetweenthesebooksbuttodrawattentiontothehugecontroversythat
created.ForadiscussionoftheRushdiecontroversy,seeLisaAppignanesiandSaraM
land,eds.,TheRushdieFile (Syracuse,N.Y.:SyracuseUniversityPress,1989);andD
Pipes,TheRushdieAffair:TheNovel,theAyotollah,andtheWest (NewYork:Carol,1
For the Bell Curve debates, see Russell Jacoby and Naomi Glauberman, eds., The
CurveDebate:HistoricalDocuments,Opinions (NewYork:TimesBook,1995);andSt
Fraser, ed., The Bell CurveWars: Race, Intelligence, and the Future of America (NewY
BasicBooks,1995).
3. For a newly edited and annotated reprint of the book, along with an extensive in
duction, see Mrinalini Sinha, ed., Selections from Mother India (New Delhi: Kali P
1998),1–64;reprintedasKatherineMayo’s‘‘MotherIndia’’(AnnArbor,Mich.:Universi
MichiganPress,1999),1–62.IhaveeschewedadetailedanalysisofthecontentofM
Indiahere,asitisnotdirectlyrelevanttotheargumentthatImake.Fordiscussiono
multiple contexts for the invocation of the nation as ‘‘mother’’ in India, see the fol
ing:JasodharaBagchi,‘‘RepresentingNationalism:IdeologyofMotherhoodinCol
Bengal,’’ EconomicandPoliticalWeekly,October20–27,1990, ws65–ws71;TanikaSa
‘‘Nationalist Iconography: Images of Women in Nineteenth Century Bengali Li
ture,’’ Economic and Political Weekly, November 21, 1987, 2011–15; Samita Sen, ‘‘Mo
hoodandMothercraft:GenderandNationalisminBengal,’’ GenderandHistory 5,
(summer 1993): 231–33; Indrani Chowdhury-Sengupta, ‘‘Mother India and Mother
toria:MotherhoodandNationalisminNineteenth-CenturyBengal,’’SouthAsiaRes
12,no.1(May1992);20–37;C.S.Lakshmi,‘‘Mother,Mother-CommunityandMo
PoliticsinTamilNadu,’’ EconomicandPoliticalWeekly,October20–27,1990, ws72–w
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