Data gathering and writing were facilitated by the generosity of two
Fulbright grants, support from the University of California at Santa
Barbara, and a grant from the Center for Chicano and Latino Studies
at UCSB. For four years, I have been privileged to share a National
Endowment for the Humanities grant for another project with my col-
league David Rock, which allowed me access to priceless data on
nineteenth-century Uruguay and Argentina. Some of those data have
been used to enrich the construction of the cases in this book.
lowe a debt of gratitude to many people. The first must go to Diane
Johnson, who with unabashed enthusiasm labored so many long hours
in carefully editing and providing critical comments on earlier drafts.
The second must go to the perceptive and thoughtful comments of
the two anonymous reviewers from Duke University Press, which re-
shaped the book into a more readable and much improved manuscript.
Kate Bruhn contributed insightful comments that have been incor-
porated into the first two chapters. Jose Pedro Barran made available
precious and almost unattainable data on nineteenth-century Uruguay.
Charles Bergquist enthusiastically supported this project at its early
stages and unselfishly shared data on nineteenth-century Colombia.
Miguel Centeno contributed data on war making in the region, as well
as insightful comments. Adan Griego, one of the finest librarians one
could imagine, donated precious hours to revealing many sources that I
would not otherwise have been able to obtain. Over many lunches,
Liu's wise advice and sagacious remarks greatly helped the
organization of the argument and definitely convinced me that sound
work demands more patience and time than I had ever expected. I hope
the final result does not disappoint him. Cynthia Kaplan's resourceful
suggestions on an early draft helped the organization of the argument
and improved its comparative scope. Helena Pasquarella patiently
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