Chile, however, achieved stability faster than Argentina. The different
pace of state building was partially related to the military's degree of
the 18 30s, Chile decisively defeated Peru and Bolivia,
but Argentina could no longer dominate rebellious Uruguay and failed to
control Paraguay and Upper Peru.
Collier and Collier (1991 :789) have used the term "state" to designate
the "bureaucratic and legal institutions of the public sector and the in-
cumbent of these institutions." I adopt this usage, which encompasses
the government in the sense of "the head of state and the immediate
political leadership"
surrounding the head of state, plus the public bu-
reaucracy, the legislature, and the armed forces. Because the formation
and evolution of the state and the armed forces were not necessarily
identical, however, the chapters on the cases treat them separately.
See for example Evans 1987; Mann 1988b; Migdal 1988; Nordingler
1987. I assume here that the state can be an autonomous structure with a
"logic and interest of its own not necessarily equivalent to, or fused with,
the interests of the dominant classes in society or the full set of member
groups in the polity" (Skocpol 1979:27).
See for example Levi 1990; North 1981, 1990; Shepsle 1989; Silberman
1993; Rogowski 1974·
For example, regimes are classified as monarchy, aristocracy, and de-
mocracy, as well as, in Aristotle's words, their "corrupted forms": tyr-
anny, oligarchy, and demagogy.
Procedural versions of democracy facilitate comparisons and are widely
used in long-term comparative analysis. Following Rueschemeyer, Ste-
phens, and Stephens (1992:43-44), I define democracy as entailing three
regular, free, and fair elections of representatives with equal
and universal suffrage; (2) responsibility of the state to the elected parlia-
ment or congress; and (3) freedom of association and expression, and
protection of individual rights.
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