1 Translator’s note: Serviço de Proteção ao Índio, which ran from 1910 to 1967.
2 Throughout this book, I use the term “whites” to refer to those whom the Wari’
call simply “enemies” or “white-bodied enemies” in their own language, and
“civilizados” in Portuguese.
3 Translator’s note: Fundação Nacional do Índio (National Indian Foundation),
set up in 1967 to replace the spi.
4 For a discussion of the methodological and epistemological questions involved
in the contextualization of historical documents in anthropological works on
native peoples, see Fausto 1992, 381; Pompa 2003, 25–30; Rosaldo 1980, 17; Salo-
mon 1999, 19–95; and Whitehead 1988, chaps. 1–5; 2003, vii–xx.
5 Conﬁning myself to South America, I refer the reader especially to the mon-
umental ethnohistorical work compiled in The Cambridge History of the Na-
tive Peoples of the Americas, vol. 3 (Salomon and Schwartz 1999). For tropi-
cal South America, key works include the collections edited by Carneiro da
Cunha (1992), Viveiros de Castro and Carneiro da Cunha (1993), Franchetto
and Heckenberger (2001) on the Upper Xingu, Whitehead (2003), and Fausto
and Heckenberger (2007b), as well as the articles collected in L’Homme 126–28
(1993). Some regions emerge as focal points for these kinds of analyses. This
is the case of border regions, which, being a focus of disputes, as in the case
of the Ecuadorian and Peruvian Andean foothills, known as Upper Amazonia,
provide researchers with a larger abundance of records (see Taylor 1992, 213;
1999; and Santos-Granero 1992a, 1992b). The same applies to the Guianas and
the Caribbean, which have received the attention of numerous authors, includ-
ing Rivière (1995, 2006a, 2006b), Grenand (1982), Hulme (1986), Whitehead
(1988, 1999), Hulme and Whitehead (1992), Farage (1991), Dreyfus (1993), and
Gallois (2005), among others.
6 As the author points out, an exception can be made in the case of the Guarani
of the missions, since they were soon taught to read and write by the Jesuits and
subsequently produced a number of written records (Salomon 1991, 41).