1. See chapter 19 for media coverage of Marcos and chapter 21 for his publica-
2. This often affectionate tag is an abbreviation and slight corruption of Sub-
3. Romero 1994.
4. Lawrence argues that Marcos “played the press like a musical instrument,
and much of the world sang along” (1999, 113). Similarly, Oppenheimer
observes that Marcos “played the media masterfully” (1996/1998, 66).
5. Romero 1994, 103; quoted and translated in Russell 1995, 56.
6. De la Grange and Rico 1998.
7. Ross calls it “a snide send-up of Marcos” (2000, 170). De la Grange and Rico
deny that the book is hostile, stating (in de la Vega, 1998, 14): “We never
had the idea of producing a negative profile because he is not a negative per-
son, but rather a very complex person whose facets we reflect in the book.”
Tellingly, however, they go on to add, “Marcos has his very attractive sides,
although he also has his darker sides, which have been getting worse these
last years and in particular in the last few months.”
8. Ross 2000, 254: “Le Monde suspended Bertrand de la Grange after he
penned a particularly poisonous piece blaming the EZLN for Acteal. De la
Grange’s masterwork on Subcomandante Marcos, la genial impostura (Marcos,
the Brilliant Myth), was distributed by the Mexican government as a tool in
its post-Acteal counterattack against the Zapatistas.”
9. See Ross 2000, 76: “Le Monde’s Bertrand de la Grange was so traumatized
by the veto that he has carried on an obsessive vendetta against Marcos ever
since.” So too Womack: “For months it [the EZLN] had had trouble with Le
Monde’s correspondent in Mexico [i.e., de la Grange], who had reported its
defects and whom someone speaking for the EZLN (fingers pointed in vari-
ous directions) had barred from the ‘encounter’ at La Realidad” (1999, 319).
De la Grange (in de la Vega 1998, 14) has vehemently denied that his book
was written as a result of “rancor” at Marcos’s veto, arguing that he does not
believe that it was the Subcommander who was responsible for his being
barred, but rather the decision of others around him.