N OT E S
N
TERMINOLOGY
1 The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Dis-
orders:
dsm-iv-tr
(American Psychiatric Association 2000)
defines ‘‘sexual masochism’’ as:
a
Over a period of at least 6 months, recurrent, intense sex-
ually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involv-
ing the act (real, not simulated) of being humiliated, beaten,
bound, or otherwise made to suffer.
b
The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically
significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or
other important areas of functioning.
‘‘Sexual sadism’’ is:
a
Over a period of at least 6 months, recurrent, intense sex-
ually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involv-
ing acts (real, not simulated) in which the psychological or
physical suffering (including humiliation) of the victim is
sexually exciting to the person.
b
The person has acted on these sexual urges with a non-
consenting person, or the sexual urges or fantasies cause
marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.
An updated version,
dsm-v,
is due in 2013. According to the
American Psychiatric Association, the proposed revisions for
‘‘sexual sadism’’ and ‘‘sexual masochism’’ involve striking the
phrase ‘‘real, not simulated’’ and adding a threshold number
(‘‘two or more nonconsenting persons on separate occasions’’) to
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