1. In relation to television in China, such a multiperspectival approach has been
pioneered, in different ways, by a series of earlier works (e.g., Lull 1992; Zha 1995; Zhu
and Berry 2009; Zhu 2012); these works and others are discussed in chapter 1.
2. It is generally believed that societies with a Gini coefficient of more than 0.40 are
at increased risk of social unrest (Goodman 2013).
3. We were aiming initially to base all the audience interviews in domestic settings,
but for a range of logistical and cultural reasons we were able to conduct household-
based interviews only in India.
Lifestyle Television in Context
1. For detailed histories of the structural evolution of the current broadcasting
system, see Guo 2007; X. Chen 2010; and Zhou 2012 (especially chapter 3).
2. In 2009 these ranked second, third, fifth, seventh, eighth, and ninth in nationwide
ratings (F. Wu 2010, 119).
3. The China tv Rating Yearbook of 2012 lists sixteen Chinese productions aired on
provincial satellite channels based on such trades in 2011, mainly talent shows (e.g.,
Fremantle Media’s X Factor), variety/light entertainment (e.g., itv’s Surprise Surprise),
game shows (e.g., bbc One’s This Time Tomorrow), and marriage/dating shows (e.g.,
Endemol’s The Marriage Ref) (Wang 2012, 198).
4. Interview with Mr. Bao Xiaoqun, ceo of Channel Young, Shanghai, China,
October 20, 2010. Further quotations from Mr. Bao are from this interview.
5. The ten top channels by market share in descending order for 2012 were ftv (ter-
restrial), San Lih Taiwan (cable), ctv (terrestrial), tvbs News (cable), San Lih News
(cable), ettv News (cable), ttv (terrestrial), ftv News (cable), CtiTV News (cable),
San Lih Urban (cable) (Taipei Media Agencies Association 2013, 12–14).
6. See http:// www .niotv .com for detailed schedule and channel information.
7. Thanks to Taiwanese media industries scholar Ti Wei for his discussion with us on