n o t e s
1 World Health Organ ization, “Ebola Situation Report,” 6 May 2015, http:// apps . who
. int / ebola / en / current - situation / ebola - situation - report - 6 - may - 2015, accessed 8 May
2 Adam Nossiter, “Fear of Ebola Breeds a Terror of Physicians,” the New York Times,
27 July 2014, http:// www . nytimes . com / 2014 / 07 / 28 / world / africa / ebola - epidemic
- west - africa - guinea . html ? _ r = 0 , accessed 15 February 2015.
3 See Paul Farmer and Rajesh Panjabi, “Ebola Does Not Need to Be a Death
Sentence,” Huﬃngton Post, 16 October 2014, http:// www . huﬃngtonpost . com
/ paulfarmer / ebola - does - not - need - to - be _ b _ 5996652 . html, accessed 8 May 2015.
4 We document this epidemic in our book Stories in the Time of Cholera (Briggs and
Mantini- Briggs 2003).
5 A study conducted during the 1950s–1970s by Miguel Layrisse, Johannes Wilbert,
and their colleagues placed prepubescent mortality at 50 percent (Wilbert 1980).
Research in the northwestern delta in the late 1990s, led by Jacobus De Waard,
calculated that 36 percent of children die in their ﬁrst year of life (Servicio de Apoyo
Local 1998). A study of 200 delta mothers by anthropologists Werner Wilbert
and Cecilia Ayala Lafée- Wilbert (2007) determined that nearly 39 percent of their
children had died; 78 percent of these deaths occurred before the age of four. The
latest and most comprehensive ﬁndings, compiled from quite a number of regions
of the delta, are by Villalba et al. (2013). They found that in 2011, child mortality was
approximately 26 percent.
6 We use the term “settlement” rather “community,” given the way that the latter term
has evoked notions of a bounded, homogeneous, cohesive social body. Such a pro-
jection would be at odds with our eﬀorts to explore the heterogeneity and shifting
deﬁnitions that emerged in static and reiﬁed constructions of indigenous people and
“the Warao” speciﬁcally.
7 In Delta Amacuro State, nursing stations are often referred to as dispensarios, while
facilities with resident physicians are called ambulatorios or medicaturas. The term
clínica is generally used in reference to one of the privately owned facilities located