1 Salman Masood, ‘‘Two Pakistani Contractors are Taken Hostage in Iraq,’’ New York
Times, July 27, 2004.
2 Although I followed these events while in Pakistan that summer on regional news
channels, much of the information was chronicled in the New York Times: see ibid.;
Je√rey Gettleman, ‘‘Iraq Group Issues Threat to Behead a Missing Marine,’’ June
28, 2004; Khalid al-Ansary and Ian Fisher, ‘‘Seventy Are Killed by Car Bomber in an
Iraqi City,’’ July 29, 2004; David Rohde and Salman Masood, ‘‘In Pakistan, Turning
Grief into New Political Muscle,’’ July 30, 2004; Ian Fisher and Somini Sengupta,
‘‘Iraqis Postpone Conference as Kidnappings Increase,’’ July 30, 2004; Ian Fisher,
‘‘Insurgents Fire Rockets at Two Baghdad Hotels,’’ July 3, 2004; Somini Sengupta,
‘‘Five GIs Killed in Attack; Philippines Bars Iraq Trip,’’ July 9, 2004; Seth Mydans,
‘‘Looking Out for the Many, in Saving the One,’’ August 1, 2004; Sabrina Taverse,
‘‘Twelve Hostages From Nepal Are Executed in Iraq, a Militant Group Claims,’’
September 1, 2004.
3 Throughout this book, I refer to transnational migrants as a semi-permanent
workforce that travels to numerous locations and engages in multiple patterns of
migration (e.g., chain, step, seasonal, radial/circular). The term ‘‘international mi-
grant,’’ by contrast, is often used to describe those who migrate in one direction. I
emphasize the transnational aspect of the migration experience to point to the
often liminal state of labor migrants in relation to nation, race, and legality, to name
a few of the central concepts that shape their subjectivity.
4 For example, throughout the 1980s, the U.S. government promoted so-called jihad
in Afghanistan to defeat the Soviet Union. The mujahideen, trained by the U.S. and
Pakistan, were later abandoned by their U.S. and Saudi sponsors to divide up the
remains of war-torn Afghanistan (Devji 2005; Rashid 2001).
5 In Society Must Be Defended (2004), Foucault describes biopolitics as the primacy of
race war in the development of state power. He argues, ‘‘Racism ﬁrst develops with
colonization, or in other words with colonizing genocide. . . . War is about two
things: it is not simply a matter of destroying a political adversary, but of destroy-
ing the enemy race, of destroying that [sort] of biological threat that those people
over there represent to our race’’ (Foucault 2004, 257).