This book began as a doctoral dissertation completed at the
University of Oxford in 2000. Over the last decade I have taken
another look at the material that I amassed in the late 1990s,
in archives and libraries in Peru and elsewhere, and rethought
what it helps me and others understand about Peru’s history.
This book is the product of that process. Many people, and
several institutions, have helped me to make the book what it is.
I spent a decade at the Latin American Centre in Oxford, ﬁrst as
a master’s student, then writing my doctoral dissertation, then
on a post-doc (when I was also a member of the then Institute of
Latin American Studies and now Institute for the Study of the
Americas in London, which I have recently rejoined), and ﬁnally
as a temporary lecturer. Those years in Oxford were life-chang-
ing, and I have the then staff of the Centre to thank for this, in
particular Alan Angell, Malcolm Deas, Rosemary Thorp, and,
above all, Alan Knight, who supervised the original dissertation.
Alan is a shock-and-awe scholar; it is impossible not to feel at
once in awe of, and, in turn, a little intimidated by, his intellect
and the signiﬁcance of his contribution to the historiography of
Latin America. He has been a source of constant inspiration and
support, and I am deeply grateful for this and for the cariño that
he and Lidia have shown me and my family over the years.
I also have beneﬁted greatly from the expertise and camarade-
rie of superb scholars at the institutions where I have worked in
the past years. At Leeds my colleagues and especially Paul Gar-