notes to introduction
1. Alayza Paz Soldán, La industria moderna, 16. Unless otherwise stated, all
translations from the Spanish are my own.
2. In 1931, with a population of around six million, Peru remained an over-
whelmingly rural country. The largest city, Lima (including the nearby port
of Callao), had a population of 370,000. Peru’s ten largest provincial cities
barely mustered a combined population of 250,000. Gurney, Report on the
Economic Conditions in Peru. In fact, most Peruvians, around 60 percent in
1876 and 63 percent in 1940, were employed in agricultural activities (as
registered by the only two national censuses conducted in the period), and
some of these took place in urban settings. According to the 1940 census,
employment in ‘‘manufacturing’’ accounted for 15 percent of total employ-
ment (if we add ‘‘communication,’’ ‘‘transportation,’’ and ‘‘mining,’’ the total
rises to 19 percent), more or less the same as employment in the service
sector (‘‘government,’’ ‘‘services,’’ and ‘‘commerce’’ combined), and only a
quarter of the population employed in agriculture. Moreover, probably
about half of the 360,000 workers employed in manufacture in 1940 were
not industrial workers, but rather handloom weavers, whose principal
economic activity was agricultural. According to a 1954 estimate, out of a
total of 500,000 persons employed in manufacturing, 235,000 were women
producing textiles on hand looms. Burgess and Harbison, Casa Grace in
Peru, 14.
3. Industria 1, no. 1 (11 December 1915).
4. Industria Peruana 1, no. 1 (November 1931). The similarities in composi-
tion between this image and the photograph on the cover of Marisol de la
Cadena’s Indigenous Mestizos, where the position/role of the worker is as-
sumed by an indigenista intellectual, are striking. Whether Rossell drew
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