introduction: A Philosophy of urbanism
1. Dates for ﬁlms are release dates. For TV shows, I list the ﬁrst year of broad-
cast, and for plays, the year of the ﬁrst run, unless speciﬁcally noting revivals.
For novels and other books, I list the original publication date. In terms of
authorship, I list ﬁlm directors, book and play authors, and musical composers.
2. M. Keith Booker uses the term “the long ﬁfties” to cover the years 1946 to
1964, arguing that in terms of periodization it makes sense to link these peak
Cold War years. Of course, these are also the peak years of the baby boom that
begins during the Second World War and lasts until 1964.
3. My description of the apartment, as opposed to other rental properties,
is indebted to Cromley, especially where she discusses changes in legal and
everyday language to describe and diﬀerentiate apartments (5–6, 72, 91).
4. These vocal suites are akin to the turn-of-the-century genre of the “de-
scriptive specialty.” Jonathan Sterne cites descriptive specialties as precursors
to the connotative realism of cinematic audio arts: “Somewhere between a
contrived re-creation of an actual event and a vaudeville sketch, descriptive
specialties oﬀered their listeners ‘tone pictures’ of diﬀerent places and events”
(243–44). Jenkins’s Manhattan Tower oﬀers a virtual soundtrack with music,
dialogue and eﬀects, describing a pair of lovers’ two-day encounter in New
York. Another prominent vocal suite is Mel Torme’s California Suite (1949,
5. The list of Broadway plays here is especially select. In a search for Broad-
way plays set in apartments produced between 1945 and 1975, I found 118
titles. See the Internet Broadway Database at http://www.ibdb.com.
6. In Altman’s formulation, genre functions like a language. The seman-
tics consist of the mise-en-scène, characters, visual style, and music, or the
speciﬁc “lexical choices” that make up the ﬁlm and are typical of the genre.
The syntax is the grammar, or patterns of formation of those things; in other