H E FOLLOWING CASE STUDY IN THE HISTORY OF A SYM-
bol emerged from a research project that was generously
supported by the Volkswagen-Stiftung over several years.
It constitutes a distilled version of a much broader investigation of
sources that cannot be provided here. This explains the density of pre-
sentation, which in places may go too far; nevertheless we hope that
readers will be rewarded for their concentrated reading. While the
iconography forms an integral part of our presentation, only a small
selection of it could be drawn on here. The world of prints is more
extensively explored in the exhibition catalog DieBastille:Symbolikund
Mythosin derRevolutionsgraphik (The Bastille: Symbolism and myth in
the prints of the revolution).
That the Bastille is a collective symbol in the widest sense is appar-
ent in the fact that the search for material can never be concluded,
since traces of a symbol can appear almost anywhere. In our inves-
tigation, we have therefore had to rely on the references of others
and would especially like to thank Christian Amalvi, Birgit Barufke,
Philippe Bordes, Robert Darnton, Martin Dinges, Claudia Fink,
Gudrun Gersmann, Thomas Grosser, Jacques Guilhaumou, Klaus
Herding, Gerd van den Heuvel, Werner Jost, Michael Meinzer, Pierre
Retat, Alain Ruiz, Wolfgang Schmale, Herbert Schneider, Winfried
Schulze, Hans-Ulrich Seifert, Jiirgen Voss, and Michael Wagner for
their valuable help.
H.-J.L. and R.R.