619
Index
Africans: arrival of enslaved, 22, 34–37, 62,
77–78, 97, 135, 447–49; Catholicism and,
34, 97, 105–9, 258, 260; cultural legacies
from, 69–70, 73, 79, 135, 160, 257, 260, 293,
554; ethnicities among, 62, 77–78, 162; in
fiction, 189, 260, 554; gender and, 22, 35–36,
189, 447–49; legal strategies of enslaved,
243; palenques and, 34, 257–59; in song,
36–39. See also Afro-Colombians; enslave-
ment; racial patterns
Afro-Colombians, 13, 69–74, 293–94,
485–86; activism and, 13, 69–70, 511,
575–78; as bogas, 196–99, 534, 537–39;
Caribbean island populations of, 62–68;
collective land rights of, 13, 69–70, 587; in
colonial era, 245, 247, 257–59, 447–49; as
creoles (“criollos”), 258–59, 447; cultural
practices of, 73–74, 98, 135, 162–65, 234,
577; curricular reform and, 69, 73–74; in
fiction, 196–99, 260–65, 273, 293–95, 536;
gender and, 36–38, 65–68, 135, 162–65,
262–65, 294–96, 315–17; intellectual work
by, 293, 486, 575–78; as internally displaced
people, 70, 232–35, 577; mining and, 77, 162,
260, 446–49, 485–94; musical traditions
of, 34, 36–38, 77–79, 244, 295, 318–21; overt
racism and, 88, 489; palenques and, 34,
62, 69, 135, 257–59; in photography, 71–72,
135–36, 206, 261, 313, 341; soccer and, 85–86.
See also Africans; enslavement; Law 70 of
1993; racial patterns
agrarian reform, 200, 236–41, 344, 363,
373, 388, 563–64, 592. See also
incoder;
incora
agriculture: Afro-Colombian communities’
traditional practices of, 73, 576–77; in colo-
nial era, 177–78, 448; development efforts
and, 298, 563–64, 571, 594–97; for export,
174, 563, 576; internally displaced people
and, 70, 232–35, 239; in left-wing rhetoric,
373–74, 388; among Muisca people, 27; in
nineteenth century, 11, 40; in right-wing
rhetoric, 363; subsistence and, 233–35;
sustainability and, 238–40; tools of, 129,
372. See also agrarian reform; campesinos;
landownership; specific crops and products
aguardiente, 59, 79, 83n4, 93–94, 338. See also
alcohol; drunkenness
alcohol: beer, 150, 212–14, 458, 495–96;
brandy, 49, 542; champagne, 131, 278, 282,
503–4, 532; chicha, 78–79, 83n3, 131; as lamp
fuel, 225; manioc beer, 442, 445; palma-
chonta wine, 49; within paramilitaries, 391;
rum, 504; whisky, 66; wine, 442, 445, 541.
See also aguardiente; drunkenness; guarapo
alférez real, 447, 449n1
Amazon region, 1–3, 9, 11–12, 18–19, 56, 60,
80;
farc
strength in, 412; in fiction, 44–55;
US combat training in, 569. See also Ama-
zon River; War with Peru
Amazon River, 11; metaphorical reference
to, 528; Peruvian border conflict along, 56,
59–61. See also Amazon region
Andean regions, 1, 11, 22–33, 40–43, 182–88,
253–56, 266–70, 454; campesinos in, 210–14,
355–59; in colonial era and before, 100–102,
243, 326–27, 437–43; in fiction, 266–71,
347–54, 538; indigenous people in, 243,
284–92. See also specific departments, towns,
and cities
anticommunism, 4, 372, 465, 562, 588; Ca-
milo Torres Restrepo’s rejection of, 142.
See also Communist Party of Colombia;
paramilitaries
anti-imperialism, 142–43, 283, 368, 371–76,
474–76, 478–81, 551–55
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